Download Our Fight for Civil Liberties: Past, Present, Future as a PDF (153k)
Free Speech and ExpressionIn 1960
The ACLU-NJ represented a man who was arrested in 1966 for teaching women about their birth control options. Homeowners had no right to display yard signs supporting political candidates, leafletters needed proof of their "good moral character" to distribute information. People were regularly given fines and even jail time for obscenity — a charge issued subjectively by people with the authority to stifle expression they found offensive such as cursing in public. It was so pervasive that in the 1970s the ACLU-NJ took literally hundreds of these cases.Today
The ACLU-NJ continues to fight and win free speech cases. The ACLU-NJ receives requests for help with free speech problems on a weekly basis, and we bring more cases about free speech than practically any other constitutional issue. From bans on political yard signs to denied protest permits, free speech is the ACLU's bread and butter. As national ACLU founder Roger Baldwin said, "No fight for liberty ever stays won."
As society has changed, so too have the ways and places we express ourselves. We've ventured into new territory, protecting the right to free speech on the Internet, at public meetings, and at public schools. Cutting-edge ACLU-NJ litigation strengthened the right to free speech at malls, deemed modern versions of the town square, and in condominiums, making New Jersey the only state to afford such broad speech protection.In the Next 50
As technology and society evolve, the ACLU-NJ will continue to evolve its defense against infringements on free speech. Whether it's on new frontiers — technology — or old ground — the front lawn — the speech may change, but the fundamental right to exercise it won't. The ACLU-NJ has begun to fight efforts to unmask the identities of people speaking anonymously on the Internet in retaliation for their comments, as well as other attempts to punish people for online speech. In keeping with the tradition of the last 50 years, our work will lead to a World Wide Web with the same protections of free speech that exist in the material world.
Separation of Church and StateIn 1960
The line separating the expression of religious belief from the imposition of religion was permeable in the 1960s, but the ACLU-NJ reinforced it. The organization opposed school prayer, challenged moments of silence in public schools and won the rights of conscientious objectors to resist enlistment because of their beliefs in the 1960s and 1970s, In 1972, some of the men who spoke up for their beliefs were forced into alternative service even though their draft numbers had not been reached; the ACLU-NJ successfully challenged those orders as being unlawful retaliation. In 1971, the ACLU-NJ fought for a couple denied the right to adopt a child because they did not believe in a supreme being.Today
While maintaining our fierce defense of the separation of church and state, the ACLU-NJ has also gained recognition for its work defending individual rights to religious expression. We represented in court the interests of a school girl who was prohibited from singing a religious song during an after school talent show as well as Muslim police officers in Newark who challenged the requirement that they shave their beards, worn for religious practice. We fought for the rights of an inmate who sought to preach in prison and helped a religious group gain equal access to rooms at Princeton Borough Hall. To ensure religious freedom, government must neither endorse nor discriminate against religion.In the Next 50
We will fight to make sure that people rather than government set the tone for religion in America. We will challenge government entanglement with religion, and reject funding unregulated faith-based social programs or school vouchers that divert public school money to religious schools. We will fight the teaching of creationism or "intelligent design" in public schools (just as we did in the 1920s) and we will defend students whose rights to religious expression are restricted.
Elections & VotingIn 1960
Before the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the 24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes, literacy tests and states' campaigns to intimidate and disfranchise minority voters, Americans had no recourse against barriers at the ballot box. No law gave citizens the power to enforce the 15th Amendment, which had established the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous servitude. (Incidentally, the first African American to have exercised that new right cast his vote in Perth Amboy.)Today
The poll taxes and literacy tests of Jim Crow have disappeared, but the ACLU-NJ still fights practices and policies that deter voting and discriminate. The ACLU-NJ monitors New Jersey's elections, deploying hundreds of trained volunteers to assist voters and preserve their rights. We gather data and issue formal recommendations for reform, including more training and better oversight. Recently, we fought to shed light on the state's voting operations and broke through barriers that had kept details of the state's voting machines a guarded secret.In the Next 50
We're striving for greater accountability in New Jersey's elections, including auditable voting machines, centralized voter registration databases, better intra-agency communication and robust state oversight of elections. We will fight to see the establishment of Election Day registration of new voters, which would end chronic problems blocking access to the ballot, including misinformed poll workers and error-ridden voter rolls. And, we're working to ensure that all voters can cast their ballots, no matter what languages they speak. We will work toward ending the disfranchisement of people on probation and parole, a problem in New Jersey and nationwide.
Open GovernmentIn 1960
The principle of transparent government had no legal backing. We had no federal Freedom of Information Act (passed in 1966), no Open Public Records Act in New Jersey (originally passed in 1963) and no Open Public Meetings Act (passed in 1973). Members of the press faced limitations on the information they could disclose from government records. Criminal court proceedings were closed until a 1980 U.S. Supreme Court decision swung open the doors, and civil courts were only opened after a 1984 ruling in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, extended that openness to New Jersey.Today
State and federal laws have since established the public's right to access to government records and meetings. However, shaking public records loose from government officials continues to be a challenge. In 2009, the ACLU-NJ aggressively took on that challenge with a new Open Governance program staffed by a full-time attorney to help people access information their government attempts to hide. Already, we've secured records for citizens from town governments, fought for citizens' rights to speak in public meetings, and forced transparency in student government, among other victories.
Facing more than 500 New Jersey municipalities that lack central oversight and a newspaper industry on life support that needs its help, the ACLU has become the standard-bearer for challenging government stonewalling. Even before the Open Governance Project's inception, the ACLU-NJ had always been a leading advocate for openness. After the September 11 terrorist attacks the ACLU-NJ filed the first two lawsuits in the country to challenge dubious national security justifications for withholding basic rights, fighting for access to information concerning suspects the government had rounded up, detained, and deported in closed proceedings. The ACLU-NJ won the right to know the detainees' names, but the Ashcroft Justice Department intervened, issuing an "emergency" regulation to keep the names secret and override the decision.In the Next 50
We're working to ensure that open government laws cover new technologies, such as e-mail, videoconferencing, and text messaging. Officials have already started to use them as a way to evade open government laws. We will advocate for every government agency in New Jersey to establish and maintain uniform storage systems; post records online that ensure both privacy and easy access; and create standards for redaction — the process of removing sensitive, private information — that prohibit removing vital, public information. We will fight to see that all immigration deportation hearings are open to the public and urge the state to create an agency with enough power to hold municipalities responsible for dodging records requests.
Privacy of Personal InformationIn 1960
Americans' right to privacy of their personal information was not explicitly recognized until the 1970s. A landmark 1979 decision in an ACLU-NJ suit ruled that National Security was too vague a term to justify searching someone's mail and subsequently monitoring him. Through the years, the ACLU-NJ has fought against — and shed light on — government surveillance of individuals and groups based on their political viewpoints.Today
The law protects the privacy of our correspondence, medical records, bank records, addresses, hard drives, and Social Security numbers, along with other vital personal information that accumulates in our daily lives. But surveillance cameras, data mining, communications monitoring, and other government programs like Total Information Awareness (later changed to "Terrorism Information Awareness") that collect and store our information continue to threaten our privacy. The ACLU has been on the front lines, challenging illegal FBI and NSA spying programs, resisting an invasive national ID program, and fighting to limit the Patriot Act, which gave the government unlimited access to Americans' private data. We've been there to demand privacy standards for emerging technologies. As the potential to monitor Americans has grown exponentially, the ACLU has fought aggressively to impose rules restricting when our private data can be collected and how it can be used.In the Next 50
As technology advances, the ACLU-NJ will make sure privacy laws keep pace. Changing the medium should not change the nature of our rights, and we will translate the Constitution into the languages of the digital age. Working with the scientific community, we will propose that new technologies come with privacy standards and specific plans to prevent their abuse.
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender RightsIn 1960
People did not discuss gay rights openly in 1960, and for decades gays and lesbians stayed politically invisible. They had no legal rights, and in many places faced state-sanctioned harassment, bolstered by sodomy laws that criminalized their relationships and entitled the government to invade their privacy. It wasn't until 1979 that New Jersey took its sodomy laws off the books.Today
The United States has made tremendous strides in acceptance of LGBT people, and New Jersey has led the way, owing in large part to ACLU-NJ advocacy. New Jersey has prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation in housing, employment, medical care, education, and public accommodation since 1992, and since 2006 it has prohibited discrimination based on gender identity and expression.
Our state was among the first to offer strong legal protections for the gay and lesbian community through domestic partnerships and civil unions. An ACLU-NJ case established two-parent adoptions for gay and lesbian couples in New Jersey, and another ACLU-NJ case established the right of gay and lesbian parents to have both parents' names on their children's birth certificates. For more than two decades we have lobbied and litigated to ensure that LGBT people and their families are treated fairly — from adoption and marriage to death and divorce. As New Jersey moves on after the failure of marriage legislation and watches other states erect discriminatory legal barriers to same sex marriage, we will continue to fight for acceptance and equality.In the Next 50
Whether through legislation or legal ruling, marriage for same-sex couples will remain a key battleground. While New Jersey's laws provide strong protections for the rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, we need to work toward cultural shifts that ensure the laws are enforced and discrimination ends. We will also work to see that state laws concerning bullying of children meet their goal of protecting LGBT students, starting that cultural shift early. New Jersey must foster a climate where LGBT harassment and intimidation is viewed as not just illegal, but despicable.
Reproductive FreedomIn 1960
Even after the Food and Drug Administration approved new birth control methods in 1960, women encountered barriers to making their own health care decisions. In 1966, the ACLU-NJ represented a doctor arrested on "obscenity" charges for giving young housewives information about birth control options, including the pill. In 1971, an ACLU-NJ case struck down deliberate, arbitrary requirements in hospitals that denied women tubal ligations, allowing women to decide on their own terms when they would stop having children. In March 1972, an ACLU case overturned New Jersey's restrictive anti-abortion law, permitting abortion in the state nearly a year before the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision extended that right to all women in America. Nevertheless, in September 1972, when police raided Doctor Robert Livingston's office, confiscated materials, and arrested him for conspiracy to perform abortion, the ACLU-NJ stepped in to represent him.Today
Over the last decade, the ACLU-NJ won two lawsuits challenging restrictions on abortions — one stopping a ban on so-called "partial birth abortion" and the other striking down a law requiring parental involvement if a teenager sought an abortion. ACLU expertise and lobbying contributed to the passage of one of the best laws in the country protecting women's access to birth control in pharmacies. The ACLU helped end abstinence-only programs in public schools and made sure that women in New Jersey had access to emergency contraceptives in emergency rooms. The ACLU-NJ has always stepped in to represent groups of women whose reproductive rights were especially threatened, including minors and women in prison, contributing some of the strongest legal protections in the country for women's health and safety.In the Next 50
The ACLU-NJ will continue to keep vigilant watch over women's choice and privacy rights and remain as the go-to organization for women whose reproductive freedom is threatened. We will protect minors who need confidential health care and quality comprehensive sex education. We will fight to preserve funding for reproductive health care. We will not allow abortion rights to be used as a political poker chip, and we will lead the charge to remind lawmakers, judges, and ordinary people how much is at stake — for the individual, a person's right over her own body; for society, public health and well-being.
Women's RightsIn 1960
Women had few rights and opportunities, little control over pregnancies, and needed the permission of their fathers or husbands to make significant personal and economic choices. In 1974, the ACLU-NJ fought for a woman whose car insurance was canceled because she lived with a man out of wedlock. Twenty five years later, the ACLU-NJ successfully represented a female student in a landmark case to make Princeton's exclusive all-male eating clubs co-ed. Female athletes won places on men's teams in high schools that had no teams for women. One tennis ace was represented by former ACLU-NJ cooperating attorney and future U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.Today
Women's legal protections have improved immensely since the ACLU-NJ was founded. As in other areas, however, legal protections are just part of the puzzle. Future advances will come only through changes in public attitudes. For example, although we have won cases protecting the rights of women workers, to this day, there is a substantial earnings gap between men and women that the U.S. Supreme Court and New Jersey courts have declined to close.In the Next 50
We will support measures and file lawsuits that protect vulnerable women, including single mothers, undocumented workers, and women in prison. We will continue the fight for equal pay for equal work, being waged both nationally and in the states. We will strive to ensure women have safe environments at work and school, and we will guard against intrusions on women's reproductive freedom. We will fight the particular methods of exploitation that women in the criminal justice system face, including prosecutors preying on single mothers' fears for their children, abuse of women in prisons and jails, unequal conditions in confinement, and lack of access to gynecological care.
Student & Youth RightsIn 1960
The battle lines of students' rights were drawn in the 1960s. Fresh off the heels of Tinker v. Des Moines, in which the U.S. Supreme Court that established students could protest the Vietnam War in schools non-disruptively by wearing black armbands, a group of African American students in New Jersey was suspended from school for passing out leaflets and wearing white gloves to protest that same war. School administrators squelched protests and students faced suspensions when they failed to salute the flag or stand for the Pledge of Allegiance.Today
The ACLU-NJ addresses civil liberties violations in the school context on a weekly basis. We've helped students punished for wearing T-shirts bearing phrases like "I ♥ Lesbians" and "Stop the Hate." We represented a student journalist who was granted an interview with a death row inmate, only to be denied entry by prison authorities. We've challenged zero tolerance policies, unlawful student searches, and drug tests.
While students have gained some rights, they have lost others. Administrators can censor student newspapers if they have a reasonable justification. Schools cannot make all students submit to drug testing, but they can test students who wish to participate in extracurricular activities — meaning practically any student applying to college. Courts have given school administrators too much authority over students' off-campus behavior and personal expression that poses no disruption to education.In the Next 50
The ACLU-NJ will remain the leading resource and advocate for students who exercise their rights. We are continually expanding our reach with programs, internships and public education opportunities for youth. We will fight for policies and practices that eliminate barriers to education such as bullying and over-involvement of law enforcement in school disciplinary matters. New technologies will require us to re-examine young people's rights, applying the principles of freedom to the latest communication trends. Additionally, we will challenge economic and educational mechanisms that deprive poor students and students of color from receiving an equal, quality education.
Racial JusticeIn 1960
People had little protection against race discrimination. Even though laws protecting people of color existed, they were scarcely enforced. Most of America's schools and neighborhoods were segregated, blacks and whites could not legally marry, federal oversight of elections had just been established to address discrimination at the polls, and people of color had no defense against police brutality. Attempts at free speech expression by black students and citizens were targeted and stifled. Many restaurants, hotels and theaters still refused to serve African Americans or had separate sections for people of color. The Newark riots escalated in part because African Americans were not allowed to hold public, well-paying jobs, like driving a city bus.Today
New Jersey's laws protecting racial minorities from discrimination in arenas such as housing, employment, voting rights and public places are among the strongest in the country, and the mechanisms to enforce them, laid the groundwork for acceptance of minorities in all areas of society and public disapproval of overt racism. Nevertheless, discrimination still exists throughout the state, often in subtler and more stubborn forms. Schools in poor areas don't have sufficient funding. Minority students who get into trouble in school find themselves facing criminal charges far more often than white students. Mandatory minimum sentencing laws affect people of color more harshly in New Jersey, extending prison time because of class differences such as where they live or the kinds of drugs they sell.
The ACLU-NJ has fought for equitable school funding formulas and against policies that catapult school disciplinary problems into the criminal justice system. We have represented African American students who were denied access to special education programs, fought a private swim club's policies excluding people of color, and challenged airport security and police practices that profiled suspects based on their race. We provide educational programs in schools and cities to empower people to know and exercise their rights.In the Next 50
We will keep sowing the seeds of an even playing field so that all children have the opportunity to succeed. Signs of change will be children of diverse races and ethnicities achieving at the same level and attending the same excellent schools as white children; all students in trouble receiving the same level of discipline, regardless of race; the elimination of racially biased sentencing laws, and a prison population that is not overwhelmingly and disproportionately made up by people of color. And finally, returning to one of the first priorities on the Civil Rights Movement's agenda, we want to make sure that no citizen faces barriers at the ballot box because of skin color.
Police PracticesIn 1960
Political disfranchisement and police brutality contributed to six days of rioting in Newark in July, 1967. In the immediate aftermath, the ACLU-NJ taught people to document mistreatment during the unrest, insisted that courts set bail for those arrested in the riots on a case-by-case basis, and in October, 1967 asked federal courts to take over the Newark Police Department because of its pattern of brutality. In addition to its advocacy in Newark, in 1967, the ACLU-NJ also sued the State Police after officers looking for stolen weapons raided 66 African American homes in Plainfield without a warrant. The Jersey City Police harassed members of the Black Panther Party and interfered with their rights to organize, express themselves, and do their part as community activists. In an unprecedented case in 1968, jurors in a police brutality case found the testimony of an African American victim more credible than that of the police and convicted an officer for misconduct.Today
We entrust the police with great power to enforce the law in order to keep our communities safe. It's important that they exercise that power fairly and wisely. We have represented police officers whose rights have been violated, and over the decades, through litigation and coalition-building with community groups as well as efforts to work directly with the police. The ACLU-NJ has played a meaningful role in promoting responsible police practices. While many state and local police agencies have adopted policies that promote professionalism and accountability, not all departments follow them. Police departments fail to train and discipline officers. In 2009, more than ten years after the federal government started monitoring the State Police for racial profiling, the ACLU-NJ successfully lobbied for permanent monitoring. The ACLU-NJ currently has several active cases against the Newark Police Department, for police brutality, First Amendment violations, and mishandling citizen complaints. The ACLU-NJ monitors the standards of the 500-plus local police agencies in the state, files lawsuits when necessary, and always advocates for accountability. We distribute some 15,000 "know your rights with the police" cards each year and provide training sessions to empower people — especially young people — to assert their rights.In the Next 50
We will continue to press law enforcement agencies to follow "best practices" in the areas of training, community relations and internal affairs, and we will continue to represent the constitutional rights of police officers. At the same time, we will pressure the state to establish strong supervision of police, including independent monitors and mandatory oversight of internal affairs units by county prosecutors. Now that the State Police has undergone much reform, New Jersey needs its municipalities and independent police agencies to operate with accountability and respect community members' rights. As long as there are victims of police brutality, we will fight for their justice. We will also continue to push for the licensing of police officers in New Jersey, which is one of the only states that does not require a credential to enforce the law, and for departments to recruit officers who reflect the races, ethnicities and genders of communities they serve.
Criminal Justice & Due ProcessIn 1960
We had no state public defender system in 1960, which meant that poor people often had no representation in court. Ordinary citizens didn't know they had the right to remain silent, because Miranda (the case that established that police must inform people of their rights), hadn't yet been decided. Like today, the word of the police was almost always trusted over the word of citizens — especially when the citizen was African American. Prosecutors could eliminate potential jurors based on their race alone. Laws against fornication — which the ACLU-NJ fought continually until they were finally overturned — were enforced almost exclusively against people on welfare because they couldn't hide their private lives from the government.Today
We have a right to counsel and a system to make sure people in poverty have representation in criminal cases — although that system is too drowning under the weight of the war on drugs. Policing is increasingly regarded as a profession and police practices have improved with time. Thanks in part to popular culture, nearly all American school children understand their Miranda rights; many can recite them from memory. However, new technologies have afforded police new unchecked power over citizens. And while litigation has eliminated most overtly discriminatory practices and policies, staggering, undeniable racial disparities continue to pervade our criminal justice system. Black men are incarcerated at more than six times the rate of white men nationwide. In New Jersey, nearly 80 percent of the prison population is African American or Latino.In the Next 50
Decades of a biased criminal justice system have left behind a dark legacy, and the ACLU-NJ is fighting against the stubborn, more subtle forms of discrimination left in its wake. We continue to fight for reforms to eliminate mandatory minimum sentences, which more often punish people based on their circumstances rather than the severity of their offenses. We seek policies that approach drug use as a public health concern rather than a criminal justice issue, ending a "War on Drugs" that has become a "War on Communities." We see a future of rooting out racially biased sentencing and policing, which has left some communities to fend for themselves against police departments that receive federal incentives for every prosecution without the resources to hire a lawyer who can devote time to their case.
Prisoner's RightsIn 1960
The phrase "prisoners' rights" was an oxymoron. Prisoners had only the "rights" their keepers granted them. Physical conditions were appalling; inmates were overcrowded and unsafe; mistreatment and brutality were commonplace. The ACLU-NJ represented women beaten in prison and denied medical care, a mentally ill woman with an IQ of 79 subjected to cruel and unusual punishment in a maximum-security hospital for the criminally insane, and a man transferred from medium-security to maximum-security prison in retaliation for criticizing the operations of the prison in an article for the Rahway Prison newspaper.Today
Thanks to litigation — much of it brought by the ACLU between the 60s and today — courts universally recognize prisoners' rights to food, clothing, shelter, safe living conditions and adequate health care. Landmark pieces of civil rights legislation, including the Americans with Disabilities Act, Religious Freedom Restoration Act, and Civil Rights Act, among other civil rights laws, apply to prisoners. Nevertheless, the picture is still grim. Over the past 30 years, prisons and jails have squeezed in nearly 2.4 million prisoners, giving the United States the highest incarceration rate in the world. The ACLU is one of the few groups that advocate for prisoners' rights. Most recently, the ACLU-NJ challenged inhumane conditions in the Passaic County Jail, mistreatment of women in the state prison system, and violations of prisoners' religious freedom.In the Next 50
We will work to reduce the overcrowded prison population by putting an end to mandatory minimum sentences, which have contributed to the country's over-incarceration crisis, and other policies that prey on communities lacking the resources and knowledge to defend themselves. We will continue to advocate for prisoners' human rights, seek to end the Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1996, which has made challenging prisoner abuse an arduous pursuit, and advocate for the elimination of solitary confinement, which causes catastrophic psychiatric harm, especially for people already suffering from mental illnesses.
Poverty RightsIn 1960
The poor, lacking resources and education to defend their rights, have always been more vulnerable to violations of their rights. In the 1960s, there were no laws to prevent the inadequate education, dangerous environmental conditions, and hazards to human rights often found in poor neighborhoods. New Jersey's affordable housing requirements came about in the 1970s; before that, communities could use zoning laws to make communities unaffordable, forcing residents to leave their homes.Today
The ACLU has fought for decades to level the playing field for educational opportunities, engaging in litigation to ensure adequate funding for schools in poor communities. The ACLU-NJ has advocated for the interests of people of limited means who have endured water shutoffs and suffered lead paint poisoning through no fault of their own. We have advocated against unfair foreclosure proceedings and strengthened the rights of homeless people, preventing discrimination and ensuring their right to vote and use public accommodations.In the Next 50
We continue to fight for the civil liberties of poor people who are disproportionately affected by discrimination. We will empower communities by educating people about their rights, whether it concerns interacting with police or due process in foreclosure. We will work to ensure that people receiving public services aren't forced to accept conditions that undermine their rights, such as incentives not to have children or denial of abortion or birth control coverage. We will join in efforts to address cuts to public transportation, mistreatment of the homeless, and barriers to education for the poor.
Immigrants' RightsIn 1960
The ACLU fought factory raids against immigrants in the 1920s and internment of Japanese-Americans in the 1940s, but policies to improve the lives of immigrants didn't take shape until the late 1960s, following in the footsteps of other civil rights campaigns. The ACLU worked to change the system of quotas that had allowed people into the country based strictly on race. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 effectively changed the demographics of the United States, increasing immigration from non-European countries and broadening ethnic diversity in New Jersey and the rest of the country. Policies began to emphasize re-uniting families, expanding the range of countries from which America accepted immigrants and granting refuge to more asylum-seekers.Today
The ACLU blocked attempts to chip away at immigrants' rights in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks, providing attorneys to sit in on FBI interviews and challenging secret detentions in the first litigation following the attacks. We have defeated ordinances designed to exclude immigrants from housing, won rights to humane working conditions for immigrants, and fought for wages an employer had denied an immigrant because her fear of deportation kept her from reporting it. The ACLU-NJ has helped enforce the rights of immigrant children to attend public school, and thanks in part to the ACLU-NJ, all immigrants in New Jersey who are facing criminal charges have the right to be informed of legal consequences that may affect their immigration status.In the Next 50
The next 50 years will change the face of America. The ACLU-NJ will fight discriminatory policies and work toward a climate where immigrants understand their rights and feel empowered to use them. Misinformation and fear of deportation deter immigrants from reporting violations of their rights, such as workplace discrimination and roadblocks to registering for public school. We want to establish the right to counsel for people facing deportation and access to fair, open, timely trials. Immigrants who are held in U.S. custody, educated in public schools, and use public services in the future must receive treatment equal to natural-born Americans. We will work to prevent state-level agencies from interfering with the federal duty of enforcing immigration laws.